1.  Choose the correct answers :

i) Which one of the following type of resources is an iron ore ?

a) Renewable
b) Biotic

c) Flow
d) Non – Renewable

ii) Under which of the following types of resources can tidal energy be placed ?

a) Replenishable
b) Abiotic

c) Man – made
d) Non – recyclable

iii) Which one of the following is the main cause of land degradation in Punjab ?

a) Intensive Cultivation
b) Deforestation

c) Over irrigation
d) Overgrazing

iv) In which one of the following states is terrace cultivation practiced ?

a) Punjab
b) Haryana

c) Plains of Uttar Pradesh
d) Uttaranchal 

v) In which of the following states in black soil found ?

a) Jammu and Kashmir
b) Gujarat

c) Rajasthan
d) Jharkhand .

Ans:  i) d)       ii) a)         iii) c)        iv) d)      v) b)   .

2.  Answer the following questions in about 30 words :

1.  Name three states having black soil and the crop which is mainly grown in it .
Ans: Three states having black soil are as follows :

i) Maharashtra .
ii) Gujarat .
iii) Madhya Pradesh .

The crop which is mainly grown in it is cotton .

2.  What type of soil is found in the river deltas of the eastern coast ? Give three main features of this type of soil .
Ans: Alluvial soil is found in the deltas of the rivers in the eastern coast. Three main features of this type of soil are :

i) They are very fertile, so regions of alluvial soil are intensively cultivated .
ii) They contain enough of potash, phosphoric acid and lime in the right proportion .
iii) Alluvial soil consists of different proportions of sand, silt and clay .

3.  What steps can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas ?
Ans: Steps that can be taken to control soil erosion in the hilly areas are as follows :

i) Steps can be cut out on the slopes making terraces because terrace cultivation prevents erosion of the soil .
ii) Ploughing can be done along the contour lines, so that water will not run down the slopes. This process is called Contour ploughing .

4.  What are biotic and abiotic resources? Give some example .
Biotic Resources: – The resources which are obtained from the biosphere and are living are called biotic resources . E.g : Plants, animals, human beings and fish .
Abiotic Resources: – The resources which are composed of non – living things are called abiotic resources. E.g : Water, Minerals, Metals, Wind, Solar energy, Fossil fuels, etc .

5.  Explain land use pattern in India and why has the land under forest not increased much from 1960-61 ?
Ans: Land use pattern in India :

i) About 46% area is the net sown area in the country .
ii) Forests occupy about 22% of total area .
iii) The waste or wasteland is nearly 5% of the area .
iv) Fallow land covers about 8% of the total area .
v) The land under permanent pastures and tree crops is only 5%  .
vi) The land not available for cultivation is nearly 14% .

Land under forest has not increased much from 1960-61 because of the following reasons :
i) There is illegal clearing of forests for industrial and domestic purposes .

ii) Industrialists want to earn more and more profits .
iii) The people are not made aware of the disastrous effects of deforestation .

6.  How have technical and economic development led to more consumption of resources ?
i) Technological development provides sophisticated equipment’s, as a result, production increases. Finally, it leads to more consumption of resources .

ii) Technological development also leads to economic developments . When the economic conditions of a country rises, the needs of the people also rise. This results in depletion of resources .
iii) Economic development provides a favourable environment for the development of the latest technologies. It helps to convert materials found around us into resources .