I.  Answer the following questions :

1.  What are renewable resources?
The resources that can be renewed by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are called renewable resources.

2.  Give two examples of renewable resources.
Water, forests, wind, solar energy, tidal energy are examples of renewable resources.

3.  What are individual resources?
Resources owned privately by individuals are called individual resources.

4.  What are community owned resources?
Resources accessible to the members of the community are called community owned resources.

5.  Write any two examples of individual resources.
Plot, wells, land and so on owned by individuals are examples of individuals resources.

6.  What are national resources?
All the minerals, water resources, forests, wildlife and land within the political boundaries and the area up to twelve nautical miles from the coast are called natural resources.

7.  Give example of potential resources?
Wind energy and solar energy in Rajasthan and Gujarat are examples of potential resources.

8.  What are developed resources?
The resources which are surveyed and their quality and quantity have been determined for utilization are called developed resources.

9.  What are stock resources?
Materials which have the potentials to satisfy human needs but human beings do not have the appropriate technology to access them, are called stock resources.

10.  What is waste land?
Waste land includes rocky, arid and desert areas and land under settlements, roads, railways and so on.

11.  What is the importance of resources?
Resources are important for human survival as well as for maintaining the quality of life.

12.  What is gross cropped area?
The area sown more than once in an agricultural year plus the net sown area is known as gross cropped area.

13.  Why are alluvial soils intensively cultivated?
Alluvial soils are intensively cultivated because of the high fertility of the soils.

14.  Why do black soils hold moisture?
Black soils are made up of extremely fine clayey materials, so they hold moisture.

15.  How do the red soils get their colour?
They get their red colour due to mixing of iron particles in metamorphic rocks.

16.  How do Laterite soils develop?
Laterite soils develop in areas of high rainfall and high temperature due to heavy rain.

17.  Why is humus content low in Laterite soils?
Micro- organisms like bacteria get destroyed due to high temperature, so the humus content is low in Laterite soils.

18.  Arid soils are found in Western Rajasthan. Why?
Due to dry climate and high temperature, evaporation takes place quickly. Hence arid soils lack humus content and moisture.

19.  Where are forests soils found?
Forest soils are found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forest are available.

20.  What is soil erosion?
The denudation of the soil cover and the subsequent washing down of the soil is described as soil erosion.

21.  What is wind erosion?
Wind blows away the loose soil away from the flat or sloping land, this is known as wind erosion.

22.  Name four states in India in which over – grazing has led to land degradation.
Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.

23.  Which factors determine the use of land?

i) Physical factors such as topography, climate and soil types.

ii) Human factors such as population density, technological capacity, culture, traditions etc.

24.  What are the characteristics of Black soil?

i)It is made up of lava rocks.
ii) It is made up of extremely fine clayey material.
iii) It develops deep cracks during the hot weather.
iv) It is sticky when it is wet.

25.  What is importance of shelter belts?

i) Shelter belts break up the force of the wind.
ii) Shelter belts have stabilized the sand dunes and desserts in Western India.

26.  What is the importance of soils?

i) Soil is a natural resource.

ii) The entire plant and animals life derive their food directly or indirectly from the soil.
iii) Human beings are dependent on soils for their food, clothing and so on.
iv) Of all the agricultural resources, soil is perhaps the most important.

27.  What are the characteristics of alluvial soils?

i) Alluvial soils are the most available soil in India.

ii) They are formed by deposits brought down by the rivers year after year.
iii) These soils are fertile, as such they are very suitable for cultivation.

28.  Distinguish between Sheet erosion and Gully erosion.

                 Sheet Erosion                 Gully Erosion
i) Water flows like a sheet down the slope.  i) Water flows through the clayey soils and  makes deep channels .

29.  What steps are involved in resource planning in India?

i) Identification of resources across the various regions.
ii) Planning of the structure along with the correct technology, skill and institutional set up.

30.  How is land an important resource?

i) We live on the land, we perform our economic activities on the land, we use it in different ways.

ii) Land supports natural vegetation ,wild life ,human life ,economic activities ,transport and communication systems.
iii) Land is the resource of finite magnitude ; therefore it is necessary to use land for various purposes with careful planning.

31.  What are the effects of heavy rainfall and high temperature on laterite soil?

i) Heavy rainfall causes intense leaching.
ii) Due to high temperature most of the micro-organisms , (decomposers) get destroyed.

32.  What can be the harmful effect of indiscriminate use of resources ?

i) To meet the greed of a few individuals ,resources are being depleted at a rapid speed.
ii) The accumulation of resources in a few hands divides the society into rich and poor.
iii) Indiscriminate use of resources will lead to global crises such as the depletion of the ozone layer, pollution of the environment , land degradation and global warming.

33.  What steps should be taken to control soil erosion in hilly areas?

i) Contour Ploughing: In this method, the fields are ploughed along the natural contours of the hills instead of up and down slopes .This prevents the rain water from flowing down the hills.
ii) Terracing: In this method, a series of wide steps are made along the slopes following the contours.
iii) Strip-cropping: In this method, strips of grasses are left to grow between the crops. This breaks up the force of the wind.

34.  How is man responsible for the degradation of land?

i) First, by cutting down trees indiscriminately ,he turns the land into a waste land.
ii) Second, his indiscriminate building/construction activities not only swallow the land but it also renders the surrounding land degraded.
iii) Third ,the dirty and poisonous effluents of factories which go on collecting in the surrounding area completely degrades land and renders it waste .
iv) Dumping of urban waste on any land completely leads to its degradation.

35.  State the properties of arid soils.

i) Arid soils range from red to brown in colour.
ii) They are generally sandy in texture.
iii) They are saline in nature.
iv) In some areas the salt contents is very high and common salt can be obtained from it.
v) These soils lack humus and moisture.

II.   Match the following :

i) Alluvial Soil a) Cotton
ii) Regur Soil b) Cashew nuts
iii) Laterite Soil   c) Bajra
  d) Rice
  e) Wheat

Ans:    i) d)       ii) a)      iii) b) .

III.   Match the followings :

i) Alluvial Soil   a) Western Rajasthan
ii) Forest Soil b) Orissa
iii) Arid Soil c) Uttar Pradesh
iv) Laterite Soil d) Sikkim
  e) Tripura

Ans:  i) c)     ii) d)        iii) a)      iv) b)   .